The welfare level of countries and whether their institutions’ structure is inclusive or not determines the balance of political power in international relations. What determines the nature of these factors throughout history has changed with the developing world. One of them is the dominancy of the countries in space exploration. Space exploration initiated a new era, directed the free market, and led to the new sectors’ formation. Today, it is seen that the countries working in this field are the countries that determine the dominancy of power in international politics. Thus, in this article, the history of space exploration and the cold war period have been examined. In light of this examination, how and why space research affects countries’ international positions are answered. At this stage, information published by the institutions of the related countries is consulted. After this, to determine Turkey’s status in this context, the development process of this country’s space policies is reviewed. Finally, the national space program, which is a current issue, is discussed in detail.